All about Graphic Arts
What is graphic art?
Graphics, also graphic art, is in the broadest sense a collective term for all artistic or technical drawings, including typography and computer graphics, as well as their manual reproduction in print.
In the narrowest sense, graphics refers exclusively to artistic prints that belong to the fine arts. Original graphics are created independently of originals and with the aim of using printing techniques for artistic expression. The single copy of the reproduction of an artistic print is called a print, the total number of prints is called an "edition". It is the artist's right to determine the size of the print run. Whereas in the past only small editions were possible because of the wear of the printing plate (e.g. zinc or copper plate), today it is possible to treat the printing plate with steel, which makes very large editions possible. In graphic book printing, the print run is usually between 20 and 100 copies.
The printmaking techniques used in the artistic field can be divided into the following groups:
- Printing (serigraphy, screen printing)
- Lithographic printing: lithography
- High-pressure process: Woodcut, wood engraving, shot cut, white line cut, dough print, clair-obscur, Camaieu cut, linocut, montage print/material print, zinc etching.
- Etching process: Etching, aquatint, heliogravure, stippling, soft ground etching (Vernis Mou).
- Manual engraving processes: Copper engraving, steel engraving, hallmark engraving, dot engraving, mezzotint, drypoint etching, chalk manner.
- Various processes, such as monotype and glass block printing.